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Global Carbon Budget Report 2023

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The Global Carbon Budget report for 2023 has revealed alarming trends in fossil CO2 emissions, reaching unprecedented levels globally.

This topic of “Global Carbon Budget Report 2023” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.

Fossil CO2 Emissions Reach Record High in 2023

  • Total Fossil CO2 Emissions: Projected to be 36.8 billion tonnes, up by 1.1% from 2022.
  • Total CO2 Emissions: Including land-use changes, expected to reach 40.9 billion tonnes.
  • Regional Trends:
    • Europe and the USA see a decrease in emissions.
    • Notable increases in India (8.2%) and China (4.0%).

Emissions Sources and Atmospheric CO2 Levels

  • Fossil Fuels:
    • Coal emissions increased by 1.1%.
    • Oil emissions rose by 1.5%.
    • Gas emissions saw a 0.5% increase.
  • Land-Use Change: Includes deforestation and efforts in reforestation and afforestation.
  • Atmospheric CO2 Levels: Projected to average 419.3 parts per million, a 51% rise from pre-industrial levels.
  • CO2 Absorption: About half absorbed by land and ocean “sinks.”

Global CO2 Emissions from Fires and Carbon Dioxide Removal Technologies

  • CO2 Emissions from Fires: Larger in 2023 due to extreme wildfire seasons, notably in Canada.
  • Carbon Dioxide Removal Technologies: Current levels are at 0.01 million tonnes CO2, significantly lower than fossil CO2 emissions.

Paris Agreement Targets and the Urgency to Act

  • 1.5°C Warming Limit: Likely to be exceeded within the next seven years at the current emission rate.
  • 2°C Warming Limit: Requires rapid cuts in fossil fuel emissions to remain achievable.

Contributors to the Study

  • Institutions Involved: University of Exeter, University of East Anglia, CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Ludwig-Maximilian-University Munich, among 90 others.
  • Key Scientists: Professor Pierre Friedlingstein and Professor Corinne Le Quéré.

Indian Context in the Global Carbon Budget

  • United Nations Report on India:
    • Commends India for maintaining comparatively low carbon emissions.
    • India’s global contribution to warming stands at 5%, with 18% of the world population.
  • India’s Climate Pledges:
    • Net Zero emissions target by 2070.
    • Under the Panchamrit Action Plan:
      • Achieving 500 GW of non-fossil fuel energy capacity by 2030.
      • Fulfilling at least half of its energy requirements through renewable energy by 2030.


The 2023 Global Carbon Budget report underscores the critical state of global carbon emissions, emphasizing the urgent need for concerted global action to mitigate climate change. India’s role in this scenario is noteworthy, with its efforts to maintain lower emissions relative to its large population and its ambitious climate targets. The path forward is clear: rapid and decisive action is needed to limit global warming and avert the worst impacts of climate change.

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