Geography (Optional) Mindmap Notes

Mindmap Notes Geography Optional

Paper I (Geography Principles)

Physical Geography:

1. Geomorphology:
2. Climatology:
3. Oceanography:
4. Biogeography:
5. Environmental Geography

Human Geography:

1. Perspectives in Human Geography:
2. Economic Geography 
3. Population and Settlement Geography 
4. Regional Planning
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography 

Paper II (Geography of India)

1. Physical Setting: 

2. Resources: 

3. Agriculture: 

4. Industry: 

5. Transport, Communication, and Trade: 

6. Cultural Setting: 

7. Settlements: 

  • Types, patterns, and morphology of rural settlements;
  • Urban developments;
  • Morphology of Indian cities;
  • Functional classification of Indian cities;
  • Conurbations and metropolitan regions;
  • urban sprawl;
  • Slums and associated problems;
  • town planning;
  • Problems of urbanization and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning: 

  • Experience of regional planning in India;
  • Five Year Plans;
  • Integrated rural development programs;
  • Panchayati Raj and decentralized planning;
  • Command area development;
  • Watershed management;
  • Planning for the backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill, tribal area development;
  • multi-level planning;
  • Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects: 

10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: 

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Referred books & Solved Papers

Referred Sources

  1. Savindra Singh’s Geomorphology: BUY NOW
  2. Savindra Singh’s Physical Geography: BUY NOW
  3. Savindra Singh’s Climatology: BUY NOW
  4. Savindra Singh’s Oceanography: BUY NOW
  5. D.R khullar: BUY NOW
  6. Majid Hussain: BUY NOW
  7. Geographical thought by R. D Dikshit: BUY NOW
  8. Internet
  9. More sources will be added with the addition of more mindmaps

Solved Question Papers

Update Log

June 10, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Location factors (automobile, cottage, agro-based industries)
  • Export processing zones (EPZs)

May 24, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • many topics in cultural setting, political aspects and contemporary issues have been added. 

May 22, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Infrastructural Factors (agriculture)
  • Religious minorities
  • Demographic Attributes
  • Racial, Linguistic and Ethnic Diversities

May 16, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Location factors (chemical and pharmaceutical industries)

May 11, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Livestock resources and white revolution
  • Developments in information and communication technology and their impacts on economy and society.

Apr 28, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Land resources and their utilization (under agriculture)
  • location factors of various industries 

Apr 18, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Locational Factors of Various Industries
  • Industrial Houses and Complexes Including Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs)

April 3, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Tourism including ecotourism
  • Multinationals and liberalisation
  • Agricultural Regionalization
  • Industrial Regionalisation
  • New Industrial Policy

March 26, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Special economic zones 

March 24, 2021 – paper 2 – added:

  • Evolution of industries

March 12, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications 
  • Forest and Wildlife Resources and Their Conservation 
  • Energy Crisis in India

March 9, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Significance of dryland farming

Feb 28, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Energy (updated)
  • Minerals
  • Biotic and marine resources

Feb 17, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Energy
  • Agriculture (intro)

Feb 10, 2021 – Paper 2 – added: Surface & ground water

Feb 2, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Natural Vegetation
  • Soil types and their distributions
  • Land Resource

Jan 25, 2021 – Paper 2 – added: Climatic regions

Jan 18, 2021 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Floods and droughts;

Jan 8, 2020 – Paper 2 – added:

  • Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns
  • Tropical cyclones and western disturbances

Dec 30, 2020 – Paper 2 – added: 

  • Drainage System and Watersheds
  • Physiographic Regions

Dec 24, 2020 – Paper 2 – added: Structure and relief

Dec 19, 2020 – paper 1 – added: Environmental issues in regional planning (Paper 1 Over)

Dec 9, 2020 – paper 1 – added:

  • Types of Region
  • Growth Centers and Growth Poles

Dec 5 , 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • Regional Imbalance Theories
  • Method of Regionalisation

Nov 27, 2020 – Paper 1 – Planning for sustainable development.

Nov 17, 2020 – Paper 2 – Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries.

Nov 13, 2020 – Paper 1 – Regional development strategies

Nov 8, 2020 – Paper 1 – Regional Imbalances

Oct 31, 2020 – Paper 1 – Growth Pole Theory of Perroux and Boudeville

Oct 23, 2020 – Paper 1 – Basic Concept of Regional Planning and Region

Oct 18, 2020 – Paper 1 –

  • Heart-land and Rimland Theories
  • System Analysis in Human Geography, Boundaries, Frontiers

Oct 14, 2020 – Paper 1 –

  • Weber’s Model of Industrial Location
  • Von Thunen’s Model of Agricultural location
  • Rostov’s Model of stages of growth

Oct 12, 2020 – Paper 1 – Central Place Theory of Christaller and Losch

Oct 8, 2020 – Paper 1 – Population and Settlement Geography => Population and Development

Oct 7, 2020 – Paper 1 – Population and Settlement Geography => Population Theories.

Sep 19, 2020 – Paper 1 – Population and Settlement Geography => Demographic attributes.

Sep 6, 2020 – Paper 1 – Population and Settlement Geography

  • Growth and Distribution of World Population
  • Causes and Consequences of Migration

Aug 30, 2020 – Paper 1 – Environment Geography

  • Environment Policy
  • Environmental Hazards and Remedial Measure
  • Environmental Education & Legislation

Aug 25, 2020 – Paper 1

  • Environment Geography – Biodiversity and Sustainable development
  • Economic geography – added:
    • Pattern of world trade
    • World Industries Location patterns and problems

Aug 16, 2020 – Paper 1 – Economic Geography – added:

  • Famine – Causes, Effects and Remedies
  • Food and Nutritional Security Problem
  • Food Security

Aug 8, 2020 – Paper 1 – Added:

  • Environmental geography
    • Ecosystem Management and Conservation
    • Environmental degradation, management and conservation
  • Economic geography
    • Energy crisis
    • World agriculture

Aug 4, 2020 – Paper 1 – Added:

  • Environmental geography >> Influence of Man on Ecology and Environment
  • Environmental geography >> Global and Regional Ecological changes and Imbalances
  • Economic Geography >> World Resources and their Distribution

July 30, 2020 – Paper 1- Added:

  • Environmental geography >> Human Ecological Adaptation
  • Economic geography >> World Economic Development – Problems and Measures

July 28, 2020 – Paper 1 – Added:

  • Environmental geography >> Principle of Ecology.
  • Economic geography >> Limits to growth.

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27 Comments
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Purushottam
Purushottam
10 months ago

Sir Hindi Me Bhi Uplawadh Kara Dijiye

Nomo Koj
Nomo Koj
10 months ago

Sir, please complete this Geography Optional first. Our State PCS mains will start very soon. So, I want to finish optionals first.

R Chakravarthi
R Chakravarthi
10 months ago

sir.. when will the complete geo-opt syllabus ( Approximately ) will be updated ?

R Chakravarthi
R Chakravarthi
9 months ago

The geography optional mindmaps are very informative n made easy..😇 hoping complete topics in syllabus r updated soon..#ThankYou#IasExpress#Team☺️

Upsc2021
Upsc2021
9 months ago

Sir in geomorphic cycles I didn’t find L.c king theory please let me know if you have uploaded it or not

James
James
8 months ago

Sir plz add science section also..for quick revision

skeezix
skeezix
8 months ago

Hello IAS express guys,i was a gold member, but my membership expired august I think. Last year when I bought the GS membership, there was no Geography optional mind maps. I was a bit disappointed. But you are moving in the right direction. Please complete the remaining portion of Geography Paper 1 – RDP , Models, theories … as soon as possible. Paper 2 – Indian Geography will take a long time for you guys which is understandable. Anyways, please let me know by mail when Paper 2 will be completed. I will purchase the geography optional membership within a… Read more »

IAS
IAS
8 months ago

Sir, I’m appearing for 2021 CSE, I wanted to confirm that will you upload Paper 2 before that.

skeezix ds
skeezix ds
8 months ago
Reply to  Santhosh Kumar

Hello Admin, I just bought the Geography Optional membership. I would like to point out some dead links/urls in the topic list. Oceanography – 1.Bottom Topography of Indian, Atlantic, Pacific Ocean link/url leads to Ocean currents of the Atlantic, Pacific Ocean page. I cannot find the bottom topography mind map so far from the oceanography list. Economic Geography 2.Famine, Causes and Remedies – points to Food and Nutritional Security Mind map.. But there is no mention of famine in that page. 3.Food Security also points to Food and Nutritional Security Mind map. In the Food and Nutrition Security mind map,… Read more »

IAS
IAS
8 months ago

Is davision cyclic model and peck’s non-cyclic model also there

rahi
rahi
8 months ago

Can you please update Geography optional Asap. In Need for Mains 2020. These mind maps are of immense use that I request you to update it at the earliest possible. Thank you.

Prasenjit Roy
Prasenjit Roy
6 months ago

Sir please regular upload

Raja Shrivastava
Raja Shrivastava
5 months ago

Hello sir/madam. Mindmaps are really good. please complete the mind maps soon as I am preparing for 2021. It’s a humble request.

Abhishek Kumar
Abhishek Kumar
4 months ago

I’ve purchased gs & optional 2 years subscription. I have a doubt.. How to access all study materials with detailed information???

Raja Shrivastava
Raja Shrivastava
4 months ago

sir please try to upload complete course , sir a very humble request

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