In December 2023, COP28 concluded in Dubai with a historic agreement to begin transitioning away from fossil fuels, marking a significant step in the global effort to combat climate change. The deal, reached after extended negotiations, emphasized the inevitable phaseout of coal, oil, and gas, aiming to limit global heating to 1.5°C in alignment with the Paris Agreement. The conference also witnessed progress in adaptation and finance, including the establishment of a Loss and Damage Fund to support climate-vulnerable nations. However, the deal faced criticism for its lack of ambitious language and sufficient financial commitments from wealthy nations. The COP28 outcome sets a foundation for future climate action, with an emphasis on renewable energy expansion and improved climate finance mechanisms, while acknowledging the challenges ahead in policy implementation and technological development.
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