Anopheles Stephensi

The fight against malaria in regions threatened by this deadly disease, such as Kenya and the Horn of Africa, has taken center stage, with a particular focus on Anopheles Stephensi, a mosquito species with significant implications as a vector for multiple parasites.

This topic of “Anopheles Stephensi” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.


Defined as Mosquito Species

  • Anopheles Stephensi is a mosquito species that is garnering significant attention due to its role in the transmission of various parasites.


Vector Role

  • Anopheles Stephensi plays a pivotal role as a vector for multiple parasites, which has severe implications for public health.
  • Its unique characteristics make it a potent carrier for diseases, including malaria.


  • The presence of Anopheles Stephensi raises the risk of vector-borne diseases, with malaria being a primary concern.
  • This mosquito species has the capability to transmit parasites like Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, with the latter posing a greater risk of severe illness and potential death.

Malaria Transmission Changes

  • Anopheles Stephensi’s adaptability allows for year-round potential transmission of malaria, a phenomenon attributed to non-traditional rainfall patterns.

Survival Capability

  • This mosquito species exhibits resilience and can thrive in various environments, making it challenging to control effectively.

Other Diseases Risk

  • In addition to malaria, Anopheles Stephensi poses a risk for transmitting diseases like dengue (break-bone fever), yellow fever, and chikungunya.


  • Anopheles Stephensi has shown a high level of resistance to local insecticides, complicating efforts to combat its spread and disease transmission.


Origin: Asia

  • Anopheles Stephensi is originally from Asia but has spread to several African countries.

Countries Reached

  • This mosquito species has made its way to multiple African nations, including Djibouti (2012), Ethiopia (2016), Sudan (2016), Somalia (2019), Kenya, and Nigeria (with reported cases in 2020).


Malaria Impact on Kenya

  • In Kenya alone, malaria is estimated to cause approximately 10,000 deaths annually, highlighting the urgent need for effective control measures.

Africa’s Burden

  • Africa bears a substantial burden of malaria, accounting for 95% of global malaria infections.
  • The continent witnesses over 600,000 malaria-related deaths each year, with a significant majority of the victims being children.

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