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With reference to the United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea, consider the following statements:

  1. A coastal state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles, measured from baseline determined in accordance with the convention.
  2. Ships of all states, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.
  3. The Exclusive Economic Zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea in measure.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation

  • Statement 1 is correct. Article 3 of UNCLOS states that every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles from the baseline.
  • Statement 2 is correct. Article 17 of UNCLOS states that ships of all States, whether coastal or land-locked, enjoy the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea, subject to the Convention.
  • Statement 3 is correct. Article 57 of UNCLOS states that the Exclusive Economic Zone shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Learn more:

  • The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to the use of the world’s oceans. Some key points:
  • Territorial Sea:
    • Extends up to 12 nautical miles from the baseline of a coastal state.
    • The coastal state has full sovereignty over the territorial sea, air space, seabed and subsoil.
    • Ships of all states have the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea.
  • Contiguous Zone:
    • Extends up to 24 nautical miles from the baseline.
    • The coastal state can enforce laws relating to customs, taxation, immigration and pollution in this zone.
  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ):
    • Extends up to 200 nautical miles from the baseline.
    • Coastal state has sovereign rights over natural resources and certain economic activities in the EEZ.
    • Other states have freedom of navigation and overflight in the EEZ.
  • Continental Shelf:
    • Comprises seabed and subsoil of submarine areas extending beyond the territorial sea.
    • Coastal state has sovereign rights over natural resources on the continental shelf.
  • High Seas:
    • Open seas that are not under the jurisdiction of any state. All states have freedom of navigation, overflight, fishing, laying of cables on the high seas.
  • Straits Used for International Navigation:
    • Ships and aircraft have the right of transit passage through straits used for international navigation.

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20% Special Sale Ends Today! Hurry Up!!!