With reference to Indian History, consider the following pairs:

Historical person Known as

  1. Arya deva — Jaina scholar
  2. Dignaga — Buddhist scholar
  3. Nathamuni — Vaishnava scholar

How many pairs given above are correctly matched?

(a) None of the pairs

(b) Only one pair

(c) Only two pairs

(d) All three pairs


The correct answer is (c) Only two pairs. Here is the explanation for each pair:

  1. Aryadeva: He was a Buddhist scholar and a disciple of Nagarjuna, known for his text ‘Catuhsataka,’ which is considered one of the most important texts of the Mahayana tradition. Therefore, this pair is not correctly matched.
  2. Dignaga: He was an Indian Buddhist scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic (hetu vidyā). Dignaga’s work laid the groundwork for the development of deductive logic in India and created the first system of Buddhist logic and epistemology. Thus, this pair is correctly matched.
  3. Nathamuni: He was a Vaishnava theologian who collected and compiled the Naalayira Divya Prabandham. Nathamuni is considered the first of the Sri Vaishnava acharyas and is also the author of the Yogarahasya and the Nyayatattva. Therefore, this pair is correctly matched.

Learn more

  • Aryadeva: He was a prominent Buddhist scholar and philosopher who contributed significantly to the development of Mahayana Buddhism. His text ‘Catuhsataka’ discusses various aspects of Buddhist philosophy, including emptiness, dependent origination, and the path to enlightenment.
  • Dignaga: As a Buddhist scholar and logician, Dignaga made significant contributions to the fields of logic, epistemology, and language. His works have been influential not only for later Buddhist philosophers but also for Hindu thinkers of the Nyaya school.
  • Nathamuni: As a Vaishnava theologian, Nathamuni played a crucial role in reviving the Sri Vaishnava tradition and compiling the devotional poems of the Tamil Alvars into the text ‘Nalayira Divya Prabandham.’ His works on yoga and logic have also been influential in the development of Indian philosophical thought.

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