Why did the armies of the British East India company – mostly comprising of Indian soldiers – win consistently against the more numerous and better equipped armies of then Indian rulers? Give reasons. (150 words) [2022]

There are several reasons why the British East India Company, which largely relied on Indian soldiers, was able to consistently win against the armies of Indian rulers:

  1. Technology: The British had access to advanced weaponry and tactics, such as muskets and cannons, which gave them a significant advantage in battle.
  2. Training: The British Army was highly trained and disciplined, while many Indian armies were less organized and not as well-trained.
  3. Strategy: The British employed effective military strategies, such as using their naval superiority to cut off supplies and reinforcements to their enemies.
  4. Collaboration with local rulers: The British were able to forge alliances with some local rulers, which allowed them to divide and conquer their enemies.
  5. Superior resources: The British had access to a larger pool of resources, including funding and personnel, which allowed them to sustain their military efforts for longer periods of time.
  6. Divide and rule: The British also exploited internal divisions within Indian societies, such as caste and religious differences, to their advantage.

Overall, the British were able to consistently win against Indian armies due to a combination of technological superiority, effective military strategies, and the ability to exploit internal divisions within Indian societies.

Mind map notes for UPSC
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