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Endangered Species in India: IUCN Red List [Table Chart]

Fish

SpeciesLocationHabitatDietary Classification & HabitUnique Features/CharacteristicsThreats
Knifetooth sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata)Indian and Pacific oceansCoastal areas and estuariesCarnivorous, specialized feeding on crustaceans, fish and cephalopodsLong, flat snout with sharp, serrated teethHabitat loss and overfishing
Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus)Southeast Asia, bordering countries in AsiaSlow-moving waters near shorelinesCarnivorous, eating fish and insectsConsidered as a symbol of good luck in some culturesOverfishing, habitat loss, and pet trade
Red line torpedo barb (Sahyadria denisonii)Western Ghats in IndiaFast-flowing hill streamsOmnivorous, feeding on algae, insects, and small aquatic invertebratesDistinct red line on its sideOverfishing, habitat degradation
Golden mahaseer (Tor putitora)Himalayan regionFast-flowing rivers and streamsOmnivorous, feeding on algae, invertebrates, and small fishLarge size and importance as a food fish in local culturesOverfishing, habitat degradation, and pollution
Deccan labeo (Labeo potail)Peninsular IndiaRivers and streamsHerbivorous, feeding on algae and aquatic plantsSmall size, attractive colors, and importance as a foodOverfishing and habitat degradation

Birds

SpeciesLocationHabitatChronotypeDietary Classification & HabitUnique Features/ CharacteristicsThreats
Steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis)Western Asia, Central Asia, Russia, and parts of Eastern EuropeSteppes, grasslands, savannas, and desertsDiurnalCarnivore, they hunt small mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishThey have a wingspan of 6.6-8.7 ft and are a migratory birdThreatened by habitat loss and degradation, poaching and hunting, and poisoning
Great knot (Calidris tenuirostris)Breeds in Siberia, migrates through the Asia-Pacific region, and winters in Australia, New Zealand, and Southeast AsiaMudflats, sandflats, short grass, and saltpansNocturnalOmnivore, they feed on insects, mollusks, and crustaceansThey have a long, straight bill and are known for their non-stop migratory flights covering over 16,000 kmThreatened by habitat loss, over-harvesting of their food sources, and disturbance during migration
Masked finfoot (Heliopais personatus)Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and VietnamSwamps, marshes, and tropical rainforestsNocturnalCarnivore, they feed on fish, frogs, and insectsThey have distinctive black facial markings and webbed feetThreatened by habitat loss due to deforestation, agriculture, and logging
Manipur bush-quail (Perdicula manipurensis)Northeast India, particularly in the state of ManipurGrasslands and scrublandsDiurnalHerbivore, they feed on seeds and vegetationThey have a distinctive rufous-orange plumage and are found in small groupsThreatened by habitat loss due to agricultural expansion, logging, and hunting
Greater adjutant (Leptoptilos dubius)Cambodia, India, and NepalWetlands and marshes in tropical and subtropical areasDiurnalCarnivore, they feed on fish, reptiles, and small mammalsThey have distinctive bare skin on their head and neck and a large bill for scavengingThreatened by habitat loss and degradation, hunting, and pollution
White-bellied blue robin (Myiomela albiventris)Found in specific regions of the Indian subcontinent, like northern India, Bhutan, and NepalPrefer subtropical or tropical moist montane forests as habitatDiurnalInsectivorous; forage on the ground or in the understoryVibrant blue plumage and a white bellyHuman activities like deforestation and habitat destruction
Nilgiri blue robin (Myiomela major)Endemic to the Western Ghats of IndiaFound in high altitude shola forestsDiurnalInsectivorous; forage on the ground or in the understoryDark blue plumage with a bright blue patch on the foreheadHabitat loss due to deforestation
White-winged duck (Asarcornis scutulata)Found in Southeast Asia, mainly in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and VietnamFound in wetlands with dense vegetationDiurnalOmnivorous; feeds on aquatic plants, insects, and small vertebratesLarge size and striking plumageHabitat loss and hunting
White-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala)Found in Europe, the Middle East, and northwest AsiaPrefers freshwater lakes and wetlandsDiurnal and nocturnalOmnivorous; feeds on aquatic plants, invertebrates, and small fishHas a distinctive white head and billHabitat loss, hunting, and hybridization with related species
Green peafowl (Pavo muticus)Found in Southeast Asia, mainly in Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, and ThailandPrefers tall forests near water sourcesDiurnalOmnivorous; feeds on seeds, fruits, insects, and small animalsHas dazzling plumage and a distinctive callHabitat loss, hunting, and capture for the pet trade
Narcondam hornbill (Rhyticero)Endemic to Narcondam Island, in the Andaman Sea, IndiaFound in tropical evergreen forestsDiurnalOmnivorous; feeds on fruit, insects, and small animalsHas a large bill and striking plumageHabitat loss and hunting
Nordmann’s greenshank (Tringa guttifer)Found in northeast Asia, mainly in Russia, Japan, and ChinaPrefers wetlands with freshwater and coastal habitatsCrepuscularCarnivorous; feeds on invertebrates and small fishLong, thin beaks for probing mudHabitat loss, degradation, and hunting
Black-bellied tern (Sterna acuticauda)Found in Australia and Southeast AsiaCoastal habitatsDiurnalCarnivorous; feeds on fish and invertebratesBlack plumage with a white bellyHabitat loss, degradation, and pollution
Black-chinned laughingthrush (Trochalopteron cachinnans)Found in the HimalayasForests and shrublandsDiurnalOmnivorous; feeds on insects, seeds, and fruitsBlack throat with a white bellyHabitat loss and degradation, hunting
Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus)Found in Europe, Asia, and AfricaVariety of habitatsDiurnalScavengers; feed on carrionWhite plumage and bare yellow faceHabitat loss and degradation, hunting

Reptiles

SpeciesLocationHabitatChronotypeDietary Classification & HabitUnique Features/CharacteristicsThreats
Perrotet’s vine snake (Ahaetulla perroteti)India (Western Ghats)Tropical forestsDiurnalCarnivore (Feeds on small vertebrates)Slender body, green color, horizontal pupils, and excellent camouflageHabitat loss, deforestation
Three-striped roofed turtle (Batagur dhongoka)India (Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems)Riverine habitats, freshwaterDiurnalOmnivore (Feeds on plants and animals)Three distinct stripes on the carapace, dark coloration with yellow markingsHabitat loss, pollution, hunting
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas)Worldwide (Tropical and subtropical oceans)Coastal waters, seagrass beds, coral reefsDiurnalHerbivore (Feeds on seagrass and algae)Large size, streamlined body, paddle-like limbs, and greenish colorationPoaching, bycatch, habitat loss
Indian narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra indica)India (Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus river systems)Freshwater rivers, lakes, and pondsNocturnalCarnivore (Feeds on fish and crustaceans)Narrow head, elongated snout, and large sizeHabitat loss, pollution, hunting
Goan day gecko (Cnemaspis goaensis)India (Goa)Tropical forests, rocky outcropsDiurnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Small size, flattened body, and adhesive toe padsHabitat loss, deforestation
Wyanad day gecko (Cnemaspis wynadensis)India (Kerala, Western Ghats)Tropical forests, rocky outcropsDiurnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Small size, flattened body, and adhesive toe padsHabitat loss, deforestation
Keeled box turtle (Cuora mouhotii)India (Northeast), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, China (Yunnan)Tropical forests, streams, and marshesNocturnalOmnivore (Feeds on plants and animals)Keeled carapace, dark coloration, and yellow markingsHabitat loss, hunting, pet trade
Boulenger’s dasia (Dasia subcaerulea)India (Western Ghats)Tropical forestsDiurnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Long, slender body, and prehensile tailHabitat loss, deforestation
Poona skink (Eurylepis poonaensis)India (Maharashtra)Scrublands, grasslandsDiurnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Elongated body, smooth scales, and cylindrical tailHabitat loss, urbanization
Inger’s mabuya (Eutropis clivicola)India (Western Ghats)Tropical forests, grasslandsDiurnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Long, slender body, and keeled scalesHabitat loss, deforestation
Yellow-headed tortoise (Indotestudo elongata)India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, IndonesiaTropical forests, grasslands, swampsDiurnalHerbivore (Feeds on plants)Elongated carapace, yellow head, and dark colorationHabitat loss, hunting, pet trade
Asian forest tortoise (Manouria emys)India (Northeast), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, IndonesiaTropical forests, grasslands, swampsDiurnalHerbivore (Feeds on plants)Large size, dark coloration, and flattened carapaceHabitat loss, hunting, pet trade
Indian kangaroo lizard (Otocryptis beddomii)India (Western Ghats)Tropical forests, grasslandsDiurnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Long, slender body, and ability to jump like a kangarooHabitat loss, deforestation
Assam roofed turtle (Pangshura sylhetensis)India (Assam), BangladeshFreshwater rivers, lakes, and pondsDiurnalOmnivore (Feeds on plants and animals)Roof-like carapace, dark coloration, and yellow markingsHabitat loss, pollution, hunting
Cantor’s giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys cantorii)India (Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, PhilippinesFreshwater rivers, lakes, and pondsNocturnalCarnivore (Feeds on fish and crustaceans)Large size, flat body, and elongated snoutHabitat loss, pollution, hunting
Travancore Hills thorntail snake (Platyplectrurus madurensis)India (Kerala, Western Ghats)Tropical forestsNocturnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Slender body, pointed tail tip, and dark colorationHabitat loss, deforestation
Travancore earth snake (Rhinophis travancoricus)India (Kerala, Western Ghats)Tropical forests, grasslandsNocturnalInsectivore (Feeds on insects)Slender body, pointed tail tip, and dark colorationHabitat loss, deforestation
Cochin forest cane turtle (Vijayachelys silvatica)India (Kerala, Western Ghats)Tropical forests, swampsNocturnalOmnivore (Feeds on plants and animals)Small size, dark coloration, and yellow markingsHabitat

Mammals

SpeciesLocationHabitatChronotypeDietary Classification & HabitUnique Features/CharacteristicsThreats
Red panda (Ailurus fulgens)Eastern Himalayas and southwestern ChinaHigh-altitude, temperate forests with bamboo understoriesCrepuscularCarnivore that feeds almost exclusively on bamboo, occasionally eats insects and bird eggsBear-like body with thick russet fur, elongated wrist bones or “false thumbs” used for grasping bambooHabitat loss and degradation, human interference, poaching, and encounters with stray dogs
Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)Subtropical, temperate, and subpolar waters around the worldDeep offshore waters, avoids polar and tropical waters and semi-enclosed bodies of waterNACarnivore that feeds on copepods, krill, and other zooplanktonThird-largest rorqual after the blue whale and the fin whale, skims through the water and catches prey in its baleen platesPollution, entanglement in fishing gear, ship strikes, and climate change
Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)All oceans except the Arctic OceanOpen oceanNACarnivore that feeds almost exclusively on krillLargest animal known to have ever existed, heart the size of a Volkswagen Beetle, stomach can hold one ton of krill, and needs to eat about four tons of krill each dayHabitat degradation, pollution, vessel disturbance, climate change, vessel strikes, and entanglements in fishing gear
Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)All major oceans and open seasAll major oceans and open seasNACarnivore that feeds on krill, small fish, and crustaceansSecond-longest species of cetacean on Earth after the blue whale, has a series of 56-100 pleats or grooves along the bottom of the body that run from the tip of the chin to the navel that allow the throat area to expand greatly during feedingClimate change, entanglement in fishing gear, lack of prey due to overfishing, ocean noise, and vessel strikes
Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee)Indian subcontinent and Southeast AsiaSwamps, flooded grasslands, other wetlands, alluvial plains, and densely vegetated river valleysDiurnal and nocturnalHerbivorous (folivorous, graminivorous) animalsThey are smaller than domesticated water buffalo and have a dark brown coat.Parasites and diseases, hunting, loss of habitat, interbreeding with domesticated water buffalo.
Hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus)South AsiaAreas with tall-grass savannah, flat, well-drained, and thinly forested habitats with a high amount of thatchNocturnalHerbivorous animals, mainly feed on bark, shoots, and roots of grassesThey have a harsh and bristly coat, short ears, and a dark brown coat on the back.Decline of natural habitat due to increasing agriculture, flood control, and human development.
Dhole (Cuon alpinus)Central, South, East, and Southeast AsiaDeciduous and evergreen forests and alpine steppeDiurnal and nocturnalCarnivorous animals, feed on hoofed mammalsThey are about the size of a border collie, have a charcoal gray to rust red to sandy beige coat, and a long, brushy, fox-like tail.Habitat loss and fragmentation, depletion of prey base, persecution, and possibly disease transfer from domestic and feral dogs.
Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)Mainland AsiaSubtropical broadleaf forest, tropical broadleaf moist forest, dry forest, grasslandDiurnalHerbivorous animals, feed mainly on grasses, but also eat large amounts of tree bark, roots, leaves, and small stemsThey are smaller than African elephants, have a convex or level back, and relatively broader skulls and larger trunks than African elephants.Habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation.
Kolar leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros hypophyllus)IndiaSubtropical or tropical dry forests and cavesNocturnalInsectivorous animals, feed on aquatic plants, crops, grasses, herbs, leaves, and bark of treesThey are found in only one cave in India, have a leafletted nose, and accumulate fat in the winter months, suggesting that they may use torpor in colder months.Habitat loss due to illegal granite mining, population less than 200 individuals.
Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus)Western Ghats mountain range in South IndiaTropical evergreen rainforestDiurnalOmnivorous animals, feed on fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, small mammals, and birdsThey have a distinctive mane of hair around their faces and are black with silver-white fur on their backs.Habitat loss due to deforestation, fragmentation, and human encroachment.
White-bellied musk deer (Moschus leucogaster)Himalayan regionAlpine and subalpine forestsNocturnalHerbivorous animals, feed on leaves, twigs, and bark of trees and shrubsThey have a stocky build, short legs, and a white belly.Habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation, hunting for their musk gland, and illegal trade.
Servant mouse (Mus famulus)IndiaForests, grasslands, and agricultural fieldsNocturnalOmnivorous animals, feed on insects, seeds, and fruitsThey are small, have a grayish-brown coat, and are known for their ability to jump.Habitat loss due to deforestation and human encroachment.
Mandelli’s mouse-eared bat (Myotis sicarius)IndiaForests and cavesNocturnalInsectivorous animals, feed on moths, beetles, and fliesThey have a brownish-gray coat, large ears, and a wingspan of up to 30 cm.Habitat loss due to deforestation and human encroachment.
Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius)Western Ghats mountain range in South IndiaGrasslands and shrublandsDiurnalHerbivorous animals, feed on grasses, leaves, and shootsThey have a stocky build, short legs, and a shaggy, dark brown coat.Habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation, fragmentation, and human encroachment.
Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in Gujarat, IndiaDry deciduous forest and savannaNocturnalCarnivorous animals, feed on ungulates such as deer and antelopeThey are smaller than African lions, have a distinctive fold of skin along their bellies, and a less developed mane.Habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation, fragmentation, and human encroachment.
Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)IndiaTropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, dry forests, grasslands, and mangrove swampsNocturnalCarnivorous animals, feed on ungulates such as deer and antelopeThey have a distinctive orange coat with black stripes, and are the largest of the big cats in India.Habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation, fragmentation, and human encroachment.
Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems in IndiaFreshwater rivers and estuariesNocturnalCarnivorous animals, feed on fish and crustaceansThey have a long, slender snout, and a grayish-brown coat.Habitat loss and degradation due to dam construction, pollution, and accidental entanglement in fishing nets.
Gee’s golden langur (Trachypithecus geei)Assam, IndiaTropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsDiurnalHerbivorous animals, feed on leaves, fruits, and flowersThey have a distinctive golden-yellow coat, and are considered sacred by some indigenous communities in India.Habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation, fragmentation, and human encroachment.
Nicobar treeshrew (Tupaia nicobarica)Nicobar Islands, IndiaTropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forestsDiurnalOmnivorous animals, feed on insects, fruits, and seedsThey have a brownish-gray coat, and are known for their ability to climb trees.Habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation, fragmentation, and human encroachment.
Sangai (Rucervus eldii eldii)Keibul Lamjao National Park in Manipur, IndiaWetlands and marshy areasDiurnalHerbivorous animals, feed on grasses,Also known as the Manipur brow-antlered deer, it has unique antlers with 12 to 14 tines in mature males.Habitat loss and degradation due to encroachment, agriculture, and infrastructure development; poaching; and invasive species introductions.

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