Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach. (250 words) 

The Indian government has adopted a pre-emptive and proactive approach to disaster management, rather than a reactive one

  • Launched the global Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) to provide technical support, capacity development, research and knowledge management, and advocacy and partnerships for member countries to invest in disaster-resilient infrastructure systems
  • The Indian Coast Guard, with the help of the ICG Remote Operating Centers and Stations, NAVTEX warning, and the International Safety Net, activated one week in advance by Maritime Rescue Coordination Centers, prevented loss of lives and reduced impact from Cyclones Amphan and Nisarga
  • The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) is launching a dynamic, impact-based cyclone warning system to minimize economic losses, and the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has taken up a project called the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project, in which a Web-based Dynamic Composite Risk Atlas will be developed
  • To improve emergency preparedness and strengthen regional response mechanisms, field training exercises such as the 2nd BIMSTEC Disaster Management Exercise on flood rescue at the Ramachandi Beach in Puri are conducted
  • Dedicated institutions like the National Fire Service College and the National Disaster Response Force Academy have been established to control situations, rather than just respond to them
  • The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has achieved all benchmarks under the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

As a result of these measures, the number of lives lost in disasters in India has steadily decreased over time, with the 1999 Odisha super cyclone claiming around 10,000 lives and the recent cyclone “Fani” taking 64 lives

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