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Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’? (250 words)

Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a crucial aspect of India’s disaster management framework. In 2015, India signed the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, which outlines a comprehensive approach to reduce disaster risk.

Measures Taken for Disaster Risk Reduction: The following measures have been taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction:

Before the Sendai Framework:

  1. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) – The NDMA was established in 2005 to ensure a proactive and integrated approach to disaster management.
  2. Disaster Management Plans – The NDMA has prepared National Disaster Management Plans, State Disaster Management Plans, and District Disaster Management Plans to ensure a coordinated and effective response to disasters.
  3. Early Warning Systems – India has implemented various early warning systems for floods, cyclones, and earthquakes to reduce the impact of disasters.

After the Sendai Framework:

  1. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction – India has mainstreamed disaster risk reduction into development policies and programs to ensure that development activities are risk-informed.
  2. Capacity Building – India has focused on capacity building of communities, local authorities, and government officials to improve their resilience to disasters.
  3. Risk Assessment – India has conducted risk assessments to identify the most vulnerable areas and communities and develop targeted interventions to reduce risk.

Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030) vs. Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015): The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030) is different from the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) in the following ways:

  1. Focus on prevention and preparedness – The Sendai Framework focuses on prevention and preparedness, while the Hyogo Framework focused on disaster response and recovery.
  2. Inclusion of new hazards – The Sendai Framework includes new hazards, such as biological and technological hazards, in addition to natural hazards.
  3. Emphasis on multi-stakeholder approach – The Sendai Framework emphasizes a multi-stakeholder approach to disaster risk reduction, involving governments, civil society, private sector, and academia, while the Hyogo Framework focused mainly on government-led actions.

In conclusion, India has taken several measures for disaster risk reduction, both before and after signing the Sendai Framework. The Sendai Framework is a comprehensive approach to reduce disaster risk, with a focus on prevention and preparedness, inclusion of new hazards, and a multi-stakeholder approach. The framework is different from the Hyogo Framework for Action in its approach and focus. India needs to continue to implement the Sendai Framework and take targeted measures to reduce disaster risk and build resilience in communities.

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