Consider the following information:

RegionName of the mountain rangeType of mountain
1. Central AsiaVosgesFold mountain
2. EuropeAlpsBlock mountain
3. North AmericaAppalachiansFold mountain
4. South AmericaAndesFold mountain

In how many of the above rows is the given information correctly matched?

(a) Only one
(b) Only two
(c) Only three
(d) All four

Correct Answer: (b) Only two


  • Row 1: Central Asia – Vosges – Fold mountain
    • Incorrect: The Vosges are block mountains, not fold mountains. They were formed by the uplift of bedrock plates due to a graben at the beginning of the Paleogene period.
  • Row 2: Europe – Alps – Block mountain
    • Incorrect: The Alps are fold mountains, not block mountains. They were formed by the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, causing the folding and faulting of the Earth’s crust.
  • Row 3: North America – Appalachians – Fold mountain
    • Correct: The Appalachians are fold mountains. They were formed by the collision of tectonic plates, which caused the folding and faulting of the Earth’s crust over millions of years.
  • Row 4: South America – Andes – Fold mountain
    • Correct: The Andes are fold mountains. They were formed by the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate, leading to the folding and faulting of the Earth’s crust.

Learn more:

Types of Mountains

  • Fold Mountains:
    • Formed by the collision of tectonic plates, causing the Earth’s crust to fold and create mountain ranges.
    • Examples include the HimalayasRockiesAndes, and Appalachians.
    • Characterized by long, linear ranges with high peaks and deep valleys.
  • Block Mountains:
    • Created when large areas of the Earth’s crust are broken and displaced vertically.
    • The uplifted blocks are called horsts, and the lowered blocks are called grabens.
    • Examples include the Vosges and the Black Forest in Europe.
    • Characterized by steep, flat-topped blocks separated by valleys or basins.
  • Volcanic Mountains:
    • Formed by volcanic activity, where magma from the Earth’s mantle reaches the surface and solidifies.
    • Examples include Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, and Mount St. Helens in the USA.
    • Characterized by conical shapes with craters at the summit.
  • Dome Mountains:
    • Formed when magma pushes the crust upwards but does not erupt.
    • The overlying layers of rock are bent into a dome shape.
    • Examples include the Black Hills of South Dakota.
    • Characterized by rounded, dome-like shapes.
  • Plateau Mountains:
    • Formed by erosion of an uplifted plateau.
    • The plateau is worn down by weathering and erosion, leaving behind mountain-like features.
    • Examples include the Colorado Plateau.
    • Characterized by flat-topped elevations with steep sides.
Reflection in IAS EXPRESS

Geography Mindmap Notes >> Landforms Evolution due to Internal Forces


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