Coal Controller Organisation (CCO): Background and Functions

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This topic of “Coal Controller Organisation (CCO): Background and Functions” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.


  • established in 1916, to have Government control to adequately meet the coal requirement during First World War.
  • Acute scarcity of coal necessitated promulgation of Colliery Control Order, 1944 for effective control on production, distribution and pricing of coal.
  • Subsequently, it was revised by a more comprehensive order in 1945.
  • Later in 1996, distribution and pricing of coal was deregulated.
  • Thereafter, Colliery Control Order, 2000 superseded the previous order.
  • Finally, the Colliery Control Rules, 2004, was published by Government of India in August, 2004.


  • to look after the residual work of the erstwhile Coal Board.
  • to attend to legal matters/ court cases arising out of the various statutes which the Coal Controller has been made responsible to administer.

Under Colliery Control Rules, 2004 –

  • To lay down procedure and standard for sampling of coal.
  • Inspection of collieries so as to ensure the correctness of the class, grade or size of coal.
  • To issue directives for the purpose of declaration and maintenance of grades of coal of a seam mined in a colliery.
  • To act as the appellate authority in case of dispute between consumers and owner arising out of declaration of grade and size of coal.
  • To regulate disposal of stock of coal or the expected output of coal in the colliery.
  • Quality surveillance with respect to maintenance of grade, loading of coal in wagons/ trucks according to laid down procedures regarding grades and sizes.
  • To grant opening / re-opening permission of coal mine, seam or a section of seam or to subdivide a mine.

Under Coal Mines (Conservation & Development) Act, 1974 and Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Amendment Rules, 2011-

  • Assessment and collection of excise duty levied on all raw coal raised and dispatched.
  • Providing financial support to the coal operators for-
    •  Ensuring the conservation of coal resources: Stowing in UG mines.
    •  Undertaking the development of coal mines in a scientific manner.
    •  Undertaking research in relation to conservation of coal, development of coal mines and     utilization of coal.
    •  Protective works including blanketing with incombustible material, N2 & CO2 flushing,     filling up of subsided areas, cutting of trenches etc.
    •  Infrastructure development such as Road / Rail infrastructures in coalfields.

Under Collection of Statistics Act, 2008 –

  • Coal Controller has been made the statistical authority with respect to coal and lignite statistics. Entrusted the responsibility of carrying out Annual Coal & Lignite survey and publishing of Provisional Coal Statistics and Coal Directory of India.
  • Submission of monthly coal data to different ministries of central and state Govt., national and international organization.
  • Collection of Statistics relating to coal washeries.

Under Coal Bearing Area (Acquisition and Development) Act, 1957-

  • Coal Controller is the competent authority under this act to hear any objection to the Central Government’s Notification relating to acquisition of coal bearing land and to furnish his reports to Central Govt.
  • Under the Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) act, 1972, the Non-coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 and the Coal Mines (Special Provision) Act, 2015

Commissioner of Payments

Coal Controller functions as the Commissioner of Payment to settle the claim cases of colliery owners of pre-nationalisation period under the Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) act, 1972, the Non-coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 and also for the Schedule-I Coal Mines as per the Coal Mines (Special Provision) Act, 2015
Monitoring of Coal & Lignite blocks.

Monitoring of opening of Escrow account as per approved MCP.

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