“Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is a sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs).” Comment on the progress made in India in this regard. (150 words)

India has made significant progress in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG 7) through various initiatives and policy reforms.

With almost 100% household electrification through the “Saubhagya” scheme, access to affordable and reliable energy has improved. Ambitious renewable energy targets, such as 450 GW by 2030, have led to substantial growth in solar, wind, and other renewable capacities. Energy efficiency initiatives like the PAT mechanism, UJALA program, and appliance standards have contributed to energy savings and emission reductions.

Policy reforms, including the amendment to the Electricity Act and the National Tariff Policy, have facilitated a conducive investment environment for renewable energy. International collaborations, such as the International Solar Alliance and Mission Innovation, have enabled knowledge sharing and technology transfer.

Despite these strides, challenges like the financial health of DISCOMs, grid stability, energy storage, and fossil fuel subsidies persist. Addressing these challenges will be crucial for India to achieve SDG 7.

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