The political and administrative reorganization of states and territories has been a continuous ongoing process since the mid-nineteenth century. Discuss with examples. (250 words) [2022]

The process of reorganizing states and territories has been a continuous ongoing process in India since the mid-19th century.

The East India Company began restructuring the territories in the states they captured, starting with Bengal, Bombay, and Madras Presidency. From the 1850s to 1947, the British government accelerated this process of political and administrative reorganization, creating new presidencies and integrating independent states into Chief Administration provinces.

  • The North-West Frontier Province was also created in 1901 from the north-western districts of the Punjab Province
  • Bengal was partitioned in 1905 on the basis of religion and language.

In 1950, the Indian Constitution classified states into four categories: Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D States. In 1953, the States Reorganization Commission was established to recommend changes to state boundaries, leading to the creation of two classifications of units: states and union territories.

  • Andhra Pradesh became the first state formed on a linguistic basis, and several territories acquired from the Portuguese were incorporated into union territories, with Goa later being granted statehood.
  • The states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Uttarakhand were also created by disintegrating regional boundaries and political territories from within existing states.
  • In 2014, the Andhra Pradesh Reorganization Act led to the creation of the state of Telangana,
  • In 2019, the state of Jammu and Kashmir was reorganized for administrative and security purposes.

The Indian Constitution allows for the reorganization of states and union territories, meaning this process may continue to evolve based on changing political and administrative dynamics.

Mind map notes for UPSC
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