The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992 amends the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution to include which of the following languages?

  1. Konkani
  2. Manipuri
  3. Nepali
  4. Maithili

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 2 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer: (a) 1, 2 and 3

  • The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992 amended the Eighth Schedule to include Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali languages.
  • Maithili was not included by the 71st Amendment but was added later by the 92nd Amendment Act, 2003.

Learn more

  • 71st Amendment Act, 1992:
    • Purpose: To include Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
    • Significance: Recognized these languages as official languages of India, promoting linguistic inclusivity and cultural diversity.
    • Implementation: Passed by both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha on 20 August 1992, received presidential assent on 31 August 1992, and came into force on the same date.
  • Eighth Schedule:
    • Initial Languages: Originally included 14 languages.
    • Amendments:
      • 21st Amendment (1967): Added Sindhi.
      • 71st Amendment (1992): Added Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali.
      • 92nd Amendment (2003): Added Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, and Santhali.
    • Current Total: Lists 22 languages.
  • Importance of Eighth Schedule:
    • Government Responsibility: The Government of India is responsible for the development of the languages listed in the Eighth Schedule.
    • Cultural Representation: Ensures representation and support for linguistic communities, facilitating educational resources, official documentation, and communication in these languages.
  • Article 344 and 351:
    • Article 344: Provides for the constitution of a commission to make recommendations for the progressive use of Hindi for official purposes.
    • Article 351: Mandates the Union to promote the spread of Hindi and enrich it by assimilating elements from other languages listed in the Eighth Schedule.

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