On December 2004, tsumani brought havoc in 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for the occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. (250 words)

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was a catastrophic event that affected 14 countries, including India. This disaster resulted from a massive undersea earthquake, causing widespread devastation and loss of life.

Factors responsible for the tsunami:

  • Undersea earthquake: The primary cause was a 9.1-9.3 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, resulting from the subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate.
  • Tectonic activity: The sudden release of energy from the earthquake generated massive displacement of the ocean floor, leading to the formation of tsunami waves.

Effects on life and economy:

  • Loss of life: The tsunami claimed over 230,000 lives across the affected countries, with India accounting for approximately 16,000 fatalities.
  • Displacement: Millions of people were displaced, losing their homes and livelihoods.
  • Economic impact: The disaster caused an estimated $10 billion in damages, affecting infrastructure, agriculture, fisheries, and tourism.

NDMA (2010) guidelines for preparedness:

  • Early warning systems: Establishing and maintaining tsunami early warning systems to provide timely alerts to coastal communities.
  • Evacuation plans: Developing and implementing evacuation plans, including designated safe zones and evacuation routes.
  • Public awareness: Conducting regular awareness campaigns and drills to educate the public on tsunami risks and preparedness measures.
  • Land-use planning: Implementing land-use regulations to minimize the exposure of critical infrastructure and settlements to tsunami hazards.
  • Structural measures: Strengthening coastal infrastructure, such as seawalls and breakwaters, to reduce the impact of tsunami waves.

In conclusion, understanding the factors responsible for tsunamis and their effects on life and economy is crucial for disaster preparedness. The NDMA (2010) guidelines provide a comprehensive framework for reducing risks and enhancing resilience during such events.

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