Mudumalai National Park – Climate, Rivers, Threatened Species

From Prelims Sureshots » Protected Areas

Mudumalai National Park is located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu in southern India. It is one of the oldest and most well-known national parks in India, and is home to a variety of flora and fauna, including some of the most endangered species of plants and animals. The park also has a rich history, with evidence of human habitation dating back to the Neolithic period.

This topic of “Mudumalai National Park – Climate, Rivers, Threatened Species” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.


Mudumalai National Park is located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu, about 150 km from Coimbatore and 290 km from Bangalore. It covers an area of 321 sq. km, and is divided into three sections: the Northern Range, the Central Range and the Southern Range. The park is surrounded by dense forests, and the terrain is mostly hilly and mountainous.

Climate and Climatic Zone

Mudumalai National Park has a tropical climatic zone, with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C during the summer months and 10°C to 25°C during the winter months. The area receives an average annual rainfall of 500–1800 mm, and the monsoon season typically lasts from June to September.

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Mudumalai National Park is fed by several rivers, including the Moyar River, the Bhavani River, the Bhavani-Manimuthar River, Kabini river, Hebbala river, Noyyal river and the Amaravati River. These rivers provide a vital source of water for the park’s wildlife and flora.

Flora and Fauna

Mudumalai National Park is home to a variety of flora and fauna. The park is dominated by tropical dry deciduous forest, although there are also some areas of moist deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and scrubland. The park’s fauna includes a variety of mammals, such as tigers, leopards, sloth bears, wild boar, sambar deer, gaur, chital and the endangered Nilgiri tahr. There are also over 200 species of birds in the park, including the red-wattled lapwing, the Indian roller, the black-hooded oriole and the crested serpent eagle.

Threatened Species

Mudumalai National Park is home to several threatened species, including the Bengal tiger, the Asian elephant, the Indian leopard, the white-rumped vulture and the Indian vulture. The park also hosts a variety of endangered birds, such as the Indian Courser, the Nilgiri Wood-pigeon and the Nilgiri Flycatcher.

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