India’s social and economic development coexists with the persistent influence of the caste system.
- Persistence of caste-based discrimination: Despite legal measures like the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, discrimination and violence against lower castes still occur in various parts of the country.
- Caste in politics: Political parties use caste to mobilize voters, and caste-based reservations in education and government jobs remain contentious in Indian politics.
- Caste and social identity: Caste significantly determines social identity, with people marrying within their own caste and adhering to caste-based customs and traditions.
- Economic disparities: Caste-based economic disparities persist, with lower castes facing limited access to resources, education, and employment.
- Urban-rural divide: Caste is less relevant in urban areas, but deeply entrenched in rural India, shaping everyday life through hierarchies and social norms.
- Inter-caste marriages: Acceptance of inter-caste marriages is increasing, especially in urban areas, but resistance and violence from conservative elements remain.
- Efforts to reduce caste-based inequalities: Government initiatives like reservations in education and employment aim to address caste-based inequalities but have had limited success in eradicating the caste system.
The caste system continues to shape social, economic, and political dynamics in India. Ongoing efforts are necessary to promote social harmony and reduce caste-based inequalities for a more inclusive and equitable society.