India has significant potential for wind energy, with an estimated wind power potential of 302 GW at 80 meters above ground level. However, the actual installed wind power capacity in India is much lower, at around 41 GW as of September 2022. There are a number of reasons for the limited spatial spread of wind energy in India.
One reason is the lack of a comprehensive national policy on wind energy. While some states have enacted policies to encourage the development of wind energy, there is no national policy in place to provide a consistent framework for the development of wind energy across the country.
Another reason is the lack of transmission infrastructure. In many parts of India, there is a lack of transmission lines to connect wind farms to the grid, which makes it difficult to transmit the electricity generated by wind turbines to consumers.
Finally, there are challenges related to land acquisition and obtaining necessary approvals for wind energy projects. In some cases, local communities or governments have resisted the development of wind farms, leading to delays and challenges in getting projects approved and built.
Overall, while India has significant potential for wind energy, a combination of policy, infrastructure, and social challenges have limited the spatial spread of wind energy in the country.