Discuss global warming and mention its effects on global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases which cause global warming, in the light of Kyoto Protocol, 1997. (250 words) [2022]

Global warming is the long-term warming of the planet due to the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor, trap heat from the sun and prevent it from being released back into the atmosphere, causing the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere to warm. The primary cause of increased greenhouse gas concentrations is human activity, such as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture.

Global warming has serious consequences for the global climate. It is causing the Earth’s average surface temperature to rise, leading to more frequent and severe heatwaves, droughts, and natural disasters such as hurricanes and floods. It is also melting the polar ice caps, causing sea levels to rise and threatening coastal communities with flooding.

To address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas concentrations, the international community has adopted various control measures. One of the most significant of these is the Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted in 1997. The Protocol is an international treaty that requires participating countries to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases to levels that are below their 1990 levels. To achieve this goal, the Protocol established a market-based mechanism called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which allows countries to offset their emissions by investing in clean energy projects in developing countries.

Other control measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include the promotion of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, the adoption of energy efficiency measures, such as LED lighting and insulation, and the implementation of carbon pricing schemes, which put a price on carbon emissions and incentivize businesses and individuals to reduce their emissions.

Overall, the control measures outlined in the Kyoto Protocol and other initiatives aim to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations and slow the pace of global warming, helping to mitigate its negative impacts on the global climate.

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