Briefly mention the alignment of major mountain ranges of the world and explain their impact on local weather conditions, with examples. (250 words) [2021]

There are several major mountain ranges around the world that have a significant impact on local weather conditions. These mountain ranges are typically aligned in a north-south direction and are caused by the movement of tectonic plates.

One example of a major mountain range that affects local weather conditions is the Rocky Mountains, which stretch from northern Canada to Mexico. The Rocky Mountains are located in a region known as the “rain shadow,” which means that the mountains block moisture-laden air from the Pacific Ocean, causing the western side of the range to be much wetter than the eastern side. This can create a significant temperature gradient across the range, with the eastern side being much drier and warmer than the western side.

Another example of a major mountain range that affects local weather conditions is the Himalayas, which stretch across much of Asia. The Himalayas have a significant impact on the weather patterns of the region, as they block cold air from the north and trap warm, moist air from the south. This can create a monsoon climate in the region, with heavy rainfall during the summer months and dry, cold winters.

Other major mountain ranges that have a significant impact on local weather conditions include the Andes in South America, the Alps in Europe, and the Appalachian Mountains in the United States. These mountain ranges all have a north-south alignment and can create significant temperature gradients and weather patterns in the regions they pass through.

Overall, major mountain ranges have a significant impact on local weather conditions due to their ability to block and trap air masses, create temperature gradients, and influence the direction and intensity of wind patterns.

Mind map notes for UPSC
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