Analyse the multidimensıonal challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also, discuss measures needed to be taken to combat these threats. (250 words) [2021]

India faces a range of multidimensional challenges to its internal security from both external state and non-state actors. Some of the key challenges include:

  1. Terrorism: India has long been affected by terrorism, both domestic and transnational. Terrorist groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammed, and the Indian Mujahideen have carried out attacks within the country, often with support from foreign powers.
  2. Insurgency: India also faces insurgency in various parts of the country, including in states such as Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, and Manipur. These insurgencies often have political, ethnic, or religious motivations and can lead to violence and instability.
  3. Border tensions: India has ongoing border disputes with several of its neighbors, including China and Pakistan, which can lead to tensions and even armed conflict.
  4. Cyber threats: India is also vulnerable to cyber attacks from both state and non-state actors, which can compromise sensitive information and disrupt critical infrastructure.

To address the multidimensional challenges posed by external state and non-state actors to India’s internal security, the following measures could be considered:

  1. Strengthening intelligence and law enforcement agencies: This could include increasing funding and resources for agencies such as the Intelligence Bureau and the Central Bureau of Investigation, as well as improving their coordination and information-sharing capabilities.
  2. Enhancing border management and security: This could involve increasing the number of border patrol personnel, improving infrastructure such as fencing and surveillance systems, and implementing more effective immigration and customs procedures.
  3. Investing in cyber security: This could include establishing dedicated cyber security agencies, training personnel in cyber security skills, and implementing measures such as encryption and secure networks to protect against cyber attacks.
  4. Pursuing diplomatic efforts: This could involve engaging in dialogue and negotiations with neighboring countries to address border disputes and other sources of tension, as well as building strong relationships with other nations to garner international support in addressing security threats.
  5. Implementing counter-terrorism measures: This could include adopting laws and policies to combat terrorism, such as those aimed at disrupting the financing of terrorist groups and preventing the radicalization of individuals. It could also involve providing training and resources to law enforcement and intelligence agencies to enable them to effectively counter terrorism.

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