The National Commission for Scheduled Tribe had written to the Union Home Minister and Union Minister of Tribal Affairs recommending the inclusion of Ladakh under the 6th Schedule of the Constitution of India. The Union Territory of Ladakh, being predominantly a tribal region, has its own unique culture and heritage which needs to be preserved by the government for the inclusive growth and development of the diverse Indian nation.
Women, who were long considered to be the "weak sex", in recent times, have made far-reaching achievements in almost all walks of life. However, India, despite having had a woman prime minister, chief ministers, and president, does not show any remarkable progress in the political and social empowerment of women.
The idea of women empowerment seems to have lost the vigour it had enjoyed during the time of freedom movement when Mahatma Gandhi mobilized as many women as men during the freedom struggle.
Nowadays, there is a need for special political interventions for the inclusion of equal representation of women in Indian politics as even the prominent female political representatives are feeling marginalised within their respective parties.
Many women politicians in the electoral and party politics are an ineffective minority within their political parties while the male politicians dominate the functioning of the political party.
Therefore, political interventions like Women’s Reservation Bill are a need of the hour to address the social shackles that are suppressing the equal representation of women in Indian society.
The Supreme Court recently criticised the verdict delivered by its two-judge bench in March 2018 that had virtually diluted provisions of arrest under the SC/ST Act and asked whether a judgement could be passed against the spirit of the Constitution.
Indicating that it would make certain orders to “bring-in equality” as per the provisions of law, the top court said people belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are subjected to “discrimination” and “untouchability” even after over 70 years of Independence.
Taking a serious view of manual scavenging situation and deaths of SC/ST people engaged in such work, the top court said nowhere in the world people are sent to “gas chambers to die”.
There are growing instances of deaths while cleaning septic tanks and sewage treatment plants in several states. This highlights the need for better understanding the problems being faced by manual scavengers and addressing the challenges in the implementation of the manual scavenging law.
The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC), a statutory authority established in 1993 was given limited powers such as recommending to the government the inclusion or exclusion of a community in the central list of OBCs.
Therefore the government had passed the 102nd constitution amendment act, 2018 to provide constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) and empower it to hear complaints as well as protect the interests of socially and educationally backward classes.
However, there is also a question arises whether merely passing multiple acts and giving constitutional status is enough? considering the situation where several states have not yet implemented 27% reservation for OBCs and the skewed representation of backward sections in various levels of the government.
In order to protect the rights of women employees during pregnancy and after childbirth, Indian law makes it mandatory for most establishments to offer maternity benefits to women employees.
Maternity benefit in India is mainly governed by the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 that applies to all shops and establishments with 10 or more employees. Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 further increased the maternity benefits being provided under the Act.
Recently, the union government has introduced 124th Constitution Amendment Bill (10% Quota Bill) in the Parliament to provide for 10% reservation for economically weaker sections (EWS) among the general category candidates in higher education and government employment.
There is growing support for abolishing capital punishment in India and it needs serious consideration since, on the other side, there has been a nationwide outrage over the series of incidents of sexual assaults of minor girls, like the one in Kathua. The Supreme Court itself admitted on many occasions that there are confusion and contradiction on the application of the death penalty.
This article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision:
- What is capital punishment?
- What is the need for capital punishment?
- What are the arguments in favour?
- What are the arguments against?
- What is the evolution of the death penalty in India?
- Why India still retains it?
- What are the protections against capital punishment in the constitution?