Anthropology Optional Notes for UPSC | Mindmaps - IAS EXPRESS

Anthropology (Optional) Mindmaps

IE Mindmaps Anthropology

First two topics are  FREE. Open them as samples.


1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance

2.1 The Nature of Culture :


6. Anthropological theories:

(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)

(b) Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)

(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural-functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)

(d) Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E.Leach)

(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).

(f) Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)

(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)

(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

(j) Post- modernism in anthropology


7. Culture, language and communication:

Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.


9.1 Human Genetics :

Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.


9.2 Mendelian genetics

Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sublethal and polygenic inheritance in man.



Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, HardyWeinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.


9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b) Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c) Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.


9.5 Race and racism

Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.


9.5 Age, Sex, Population, Physiological Characteristics

Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.


9.6 Ecological Anthropology

Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.


9.6 Epidemiological Anthropology

Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency-related diseases.


11. Demography

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.



1.2 Palaeo

Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus, Siwalik Man and Narmada Man).


1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India


2. Demographic profile of India


3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system

3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature

3.4 Impact of Religion on Indian society.

Impact of Buddhism, Jainism and Islam and Christianity on Indian society.


5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities


5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society:

6.1 Tribal situation in India

Tribal situation in India, Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.


6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities

  • land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
  • Recent developments


6.3 Development Projects & Tribes

  • Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation.
  • Development of forest policy and tribals.
  • Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal populations.
  • Recent developments


7.1 SC, ST & OBCs

  • Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.
  • Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
  • Recent developments


7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies

  • Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
  • Recent developments


7.3 Ethnicity & Tribes

 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism; Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.


8.1 Impact of religions on tribes

Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.


8.2 Tribe and nation state

a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.


9.1 Tribal Administration & Development

  • History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation.
  • The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development.
  • Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.


9.2 Role of anthropology in development

Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.


9.3 Contributions of anthropology

Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements.


This content is for Anthropology optional members only! Join now to access all Anthropology mindmap notes.


Update Log

Jan 22, 2021 – added:

  • Tools of data collection
  • Tribal situation in India
  • Bio-genetic variability
  • Linguistic characteristics of the tribal populations
  • Panchayati Raj and social change
  • Media and Social change

Jan 16, 2021 – added:

  • Indigenous processes of socio-cultural change
  • Westernization
  • Modernization
  • Inter-play of little and great traditions

Jan 11, 2021 – added:

  • Impact of globalization on Indian villages
  • Linguistic minorities
  • Religious minorities
  • Tools of data collection
  • Sanskritization

Jan 4, 2021 – added:

  • Traditional and changing patterns of settlement 
  • D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies 
  • Chromosomal and karyo-type analysis 
  • Case study method 
  • Fieldwork tradition in anthropology 
  • Distinction between technique, method and methodology 
  • Indian village as a social system 
  • Genealogy
  • Observation

Dec 30, 2020 – added:

  • Emergence, growth and development in India
  • Contribution of Indian anthropologists
  • Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators
  • Significance of village study in India
  • Cytogenetic method
  • Impact of Jainism, Islam on indian society
  • Impact of Christianity on Indian society

Dec 23, 2020 – added:

  • Nature man spirit complex
  • Twin Study
  • Impact of Buddhism on Indian society

Dec 16, 2020 – added:

  • Sacred Complex
  • Pedigree Analysis

Dec 7, 2020 – added:

  • Jajmani system,
  • Tribe- caste continuum.

Dec 1, 2020 – added:

  • Future of the caste system
  • Human Physique and Somatotypes
  • Biological and chronological longevity 
  • Immunological methods 

Nov 26, 2020 – added:

  • DNA technology in diseases and medicine 
  • Serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology
  • Theories of origin of caste system 
  • Caste mobility
  • Structure and characteristics Varna and caste
  • Dominant Caste
  • Concept of growth and development

Nov 15, 2020 – added:

  • Rina and Rebirth
  • Karma
  • Purushartha
  • Genetic Counseling and Eugenics

Nov 10, 2020 – added:

  • Varnashrama system
  • Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction
  • Paternity diagnosis
  • Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth

Nob 8, 2020 – added:

  • Siwalik man
  • Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipment
  • Concept of ethnoarchaeology
  • Ethnic elements of India
  • Linguistic elements of India

Nov 3, 2020 – added:

  • Forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies
  • Magico-religious functionaries
  • Nutritional anthropology
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • Anthropology of sports
  • Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization
  • Post-Harappan cultures
  • Narmada man
  • Sivapithecus
  • Ramapithecus

Oct 30, 2020 

Paper 1 – added

  • Anthropological approaches to the study of religion
  • Sacred and Profane
  • Monotheism and Polytheism
  • Religion, magic and science distinguished

Paper II – added

  • Paleolithic cultures
  • Mesolithic Cultures of India
  • Neolithic culture of india
  • Chalcolithic Cultures
  • Harappan Civilisation

Oct 26, 2020 – Paper 1 – Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state;

Oct 25, 2020 – Paper 1 – concepts of power, authority and legitimacy;

Oct 23, 2020 – Paper 1 – Social control, law and justice in simple societies

Oct 22, 2020 – Paper 1 – added: globalization and indigenous economic systems.

Oct 13, 2020 – Paper 1 – added: Subsisting on horticulture and agriculture

Sep 19, 2020 – Paper 1 – added: Subsisting on fishing and pastorism.

Sep 11, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

Principles governing production, distribution and exchange in communities,

      • Reciprocity, redistribution and market
      • subsisting on hunting and gathering, 

Sep 6, 2020 – Paper 1 – added: Formalist and substantivist debate.

Sep 4, 2020 – Paper 1- added:

  • Descent and Alliance
  • Meaning, scope, and relevance of economic anthropology

Aug 29, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory)
  • Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation

Aug 25, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • Principles and types of descent
  • Forms of descent groups

Aug 21, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
  • Kinship consanguinity and affinity

Aug 17, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • functions of family
  • Types of family

Aug 13, 2020 – Paper -added:

  • Marriage payments
  • Family – Definition and universality;
  • Family, household and domestic groups;

Aug 9, 2020 – Paper 1 -added:

  • Functions of marriage
  • Marriage regulations 

Aug 4, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • Laws of marriage
  • Types of marriage 

Aug 2, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • social groups
  • social stratification
  • Marriage – definition and universality

July 30, 2020 – Paper 1 – added:

  • Concept of Society
  • Society and Culture
  • Social Institutions

July 27, 2020 – Paper 1 – Chalcolithic culture, copper-bronze age and iron age added under “Archaeology, Chronology & Cultural Evolution”.

July 22, 2020 – Paper 1 – mindmaps added in “Archaeology, Chronology & Cultural Evolution”.

July 18, 2020 – Paper 1 – uploaded:

  • Gene & Chromosomes,
  • Mutation & Cell Division.

July 16, 2020 – Protein Synthesis uploaded.

July 14, 2020 – Paper 1 – Biological Basis of Life –

  • The Cell,
  • DNA structure and replication,

July 13, 2020 – Paper 1 – “Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi, and Chancelede” uploaded.

July 10, 2020 – Paper 1 – Uploaded the following:

(b) Homo erectus

(c) Neanderthal Man

(d) Rhodesian man.

July 7, 2020 – Paper 1 – “Australopithecines” uploaded.

July 5, 2020 – Primates >> “Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes” & “Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications” uploaded


Referred Sources

Paper 1:


  • ignou M.A Anthropology – BUY NOW
  • epg pathashala – VISIT WEBSITE
  • January 2014 edition of Yojana- Tribal and Marginalized Communities – DOWNLOAD
  • The Tribal Culture of India – LP Vidyarthi: BUY NOW
  • Tribal India – Nadeem Hasnain: BUY NOW
  • Indian Anthropology -Nadeem Hasnain – BUY NOW
  • Anthropology Simplified – Vivek Bhasme: BUY NOW


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Invading Curiosity
Invading Curiosity
26 days ago

In Anthropology, paper 1 under 2.4 Family, Mindmap of ‘Functions of Family’ has Mindmap of ‘Types of Family’.
Please rectify it.

Kartikey Mishra
Kartikey Mishra
28 days ago

hi, any estimate upto when course would be completed…please give an estimate so that we can plan accordingly.
thanks for all the mindmaps :)

1 month ago

Hi, how many more day’s it will take to complete syllabus? Is the topics are getting uploaded on daily basis till now?

2 months ago

hi… i have query does you channel provides mind maps or anthropology notes…i would like to join can i know the details weather it is a mind maps or detailed notes

Visal M
Visal M
2 months ago

Great work so far! Can give us some idea as to by when you are planning to complete the syllabus? Can try planning accordingly.
Thank you.

Babai Mukherjee
Babai Mukherjee
4 months ago

Social group topics is not opening..its totally blank

Babai Mukherjee
Babai Mukherjee
4 months ago

Please upload atleast one topics everyday one from 1st paper and one from 2nd paper…earnest request to you..thanks for your effort

Akash kumar
Akash kumar
5 months ago

Are these notes enough for complete coverage of anthropology optional? And when will you upload all the mindmaps?

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
5 months ago
Reply to  Akash kumar

Thank you for your interest..we are covering each topic comprehensively extracting important points from multiple sources..we are making sure that student doesn’t need another source to look for.
We are uploading one topic each day so one can finish reading them as soon as it was uploaded.we will finish it ASAP
Thank you.

5 months ago

Regarding anthropology optional, all mindmaps are quite good and topics are covered according to previous year papers. But please upload all chapters as early as possible.

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
5 months ago
Reply to  King

Thank you for the feedback.we are doing our best to finish it ASAP.we will not disappoint you.thanks again.good luck.

shivjeet Barupal
shivjeet Barupal
6 months ago

Plz ad difference blw new and old physical anthropology
No diagram

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
6 months ago

Thanks for your feedback..Regarding diagrams pls see other freely available topic like classical evolutionists can see diagram.. in physical anthropology we have added lot of diagrams for understanding the concepts wherever required.
2) regarding previous year questions we will add for sure..
Thanks again.

6 months ago

Also if the topic can be related to current events

6 months ago

Add names of anthropologist and their work/books as much as possible as it make the answer relevant and fetches more marks

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
6 months ago
Reply to  Rahul

Thanks for the feedback. as a matter of fact we did add and we will add major works of all can refer it in classical evolutionists topic that is freely available. Good luck.

Babai Mukherjee
Babai Mukherjee
6 months ago

Please upload the notes daily and complete it as early as possible before September at least….thanks for your effort

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
6 months ago

Thank you for the feedback.we are working to give you the best content and will make sure to finish ASAP. Good luck

krishan kumar
krishan kumar
6 months ago

notes are very good and effective
please try to complete syllabus before prelims

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
6 months ago
Reply to  krishan kumar

Thank you for the feedback.we are working to give you the best content and will make sure to finish ASAP.

Shiv jeet
Shiv jeet
6 months ago

Please ad diagrams, previous year questions, case studies, current example, ….

Shravan pitta
Shravan pitta
6 months ago
Reply to  Shiv jeet

Yes we are adding diagrams wherever required.
Previous year questions also will be added.thanks for the suggestions

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